Insights Daily Current Affairs + PIB: 15 August 2019
Relevant articles from PIB:
73rd Independence Day- Why India celebrates Independence Day on 15 August
The call for Poorna Swaraj:
In 1929, when Jawaharlal Nehru as Congress President gave the decision for ‘Poorna Swaraj’ or complete independence from British colonial rule, January 26 was chosen as the Independence Day.
Congress get together continued to rejoice it 1930 onwards, till India attained independence and January 26, 1950, was chosen as the Republic Day – the day India formally turned a sovereign country and was not a British Dominion.
How did August 15 develop into India’s independence day?
Lord Mountbatten had been given a mandate by the British parliament to transfer the facility by June 30, 1948. If he had waited until June 1948, in C Rajagopalachari’s memorable phrases, there would have been no power left to transfer. Mountbatten thus advanced the date to August 1947. By advancing the date, he stated he was making certain that there might be no bloodshed or riot.
Based mostly on Mountbatten’s inputs the Indian Independence Invoice was launched in the British House of Commons on July 4, 1947, and passed inside a fortnight. It offered for the top of the British rule in India, on August 15, 1947, and the institution of the Dominions of India and Pakistan, which have been allowed to secede from the British Commonwealth.
Why Mountbatten selected August 15, 1947?
As a result of it was the second anniversary of Japan’s surrender.
GS Paper 2:
- Government insurance policies and interventions for improvement in numerous sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
Report of the Competitors Regulation Evaluation Committee submitted
What to review?
For prelims and mains: Competition law- features, issues and the need for evaluation.
Context: Report of the Competition Regulation Evaluation Committee submitted to Union Finance and Company Affairs Minister.
The important thing suggestions of the Competitors Regulation Evaluation Committee are:
- Introduction of a ‘Green Channel’ for mixture notifications to enable fast-paced regulatory approvals for overwhelming majority of mergers and acquisitions which will haven’t any main considerations relating to appreciable opposed effects on competitors. Mixtures arising out of the insolvency resolution process beneath the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code may even be eligible for “Green Channel” approvals.
- Introducing a devoted bench in NCLATfor hearing appeals underneath the Competition Act.
- Introduction of categorical provisions to determine ‘hub and spoke’ agreements in addition to agreements that do not fit inside typical horizontal or vertical anti-competitive buildings to cowl agreements associated to business buildings and fashions synonymous with new age markets.
- Further enforcement mechanism of ‘Settlement & Commitments” within the interests of speedier decision of instances of anti-competitive conduct.
- Enabling provisions to prescribe mandatory thresholds, inter alia, deal-value threshold for merger notifications.
- CCI to difficulty tips on imposition of penaltyto ensure extra transparency and quicker determination making which can encourage compliance by businesses.
- Strengthening the governance construction of CCI with the introduction of a Governing Board to oversee advocacy and quasi-legislative features, leaving adjudicatory features to the Entire-time Members.
- Merging DG’s Workplace with CCI as an ‘Investigation Division’ as it aids CCI in discharging an inquisitorial moderately than adversarial mandate. Nevertheless, practical autonomy have to be protected.
- Opening of CCI workplaces at regional levelto perform non-adjudicatory features reminiscent of research, advocacy and so forth. and interaction with State Governments and State regulators.
The Authorities constituted a Competition Regulation Assessment Committee on 1st October, 2018 to assessment the prevailing Competition regulation framework and make recommendations to further strengthen the framework to inter alia meet new financial system challenges.
The Competition Act:
The Competitors Act, 2002, as amended by the Competition (Amendment) Act, 2007, prohibits anti-competitive agreements, abuse of dominant place by enterprises and regulates mixtures (acquisition, acquiring of control and M&A), which causes or more likely to trigger an considerable hostile effect on competitors within India.
Need for evaluate:
In the course of the past nine years the dimensions of the Indian Financial system has grown immensely and India is at this time amongst the top five Economies in the World and poised to forge forward further. On this context, it’s important that Competition Regulation is strengthened, and re-calibrated to advertise greatest practices which end result in the citizens of this country attaining their aspirations and value for cash.
Related articles from numerous news sources:
GS Paper 3:
Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism.
Jammu and Kashmir Public Security Act (PSA)
What to review?
For prelims: Key options of the act.
For mains: Issues related, why is it referred to as a draconian regulation, want for reforms.
Why in Information? Former IAS officer has been detained beneath the Public Security Act (PSA).
What’s the J&Okay PSA?
- The Jammu and Kashmir Public Security Act (PSA) acquired the assent of the J&Okay Governor on April eight, 1978.
- The Act was launched as a troublesome regulation to stop the smuggling of timber and maintain the smugglers “out of circulation”.
- The regulation allows the government to detain any individual above the age of 16 without trial for a interval of two years.
- The PSA allows for administrative detention for up to two years “in the case of persons acting in any manner prejudicial to the security of the State”, and for administrative detention as much as one yr where “any person is acting in any manner prejudicial to the maintenance of public order”.
- Detention orders underneath PSA might be issued by Divisional Commissioners or District Magistrates.
- Part 22 of the Act offers protection for any motion taken “in good faith” underneath the Act: “No suit, prosecution or any other legal proceeding shall lie against any person for anything done or intended to be done in good faith in pursuance of the provisions of this Act.”
- Beneath Part 23 of the Act, the federal government is empowered to “make such Rules consistent with the provisions of this Act, as may be necessary for carrying out the objects of this Act”.
Why is it also known as a “draconian” regulation?
- Right from the beginning, the regulation was misused extensively, and was repeatedly employed towards political opponents by consecutive governments till 1990. After the emergence of militancy, the J&Okay authorities regularly invoked the PSA to crack down on separatists.
- In August 2018, the Act was amended to allow people to be detained underneath the PSA outdoors the state as properly.
- The detaining authority needn’t disclose any information concerning the detention “which it considers to be against the public interest to disclose”.
- The terms underneath which a person is detained beneath PSA are obscure and embrace a broad vary of actions like “acting in any manner prejudicial to the security of the State” or for “acting in any manner prejudicial to the maintenance of public order”.
- The vagueness offered within the act provides unbridled powers to the authorities. The detainees, subsequently, are successfully debarred from contesting the legality of their detention.
- PSA doesn’t present for a judicial assessment of detention. To checkmate the J&Okay High Courtroom orders for release of individuals detained underneath the act the state authorities difficulty successive detention orders. This ensures extended detention of individuals.
- PSC has been used towards human rights activists, journalists, separatists and others who’re thought-about as a menace to the regulation & order. Right to dissent is stifled by these Acts.
Sources: the Hindu.
GS Paper 3:
- Conservation related points.
International evaluation of forest biodiversity by WWF
What to review?
For prelims and mains: About WWF and key findings of the report.
Context: World Broad Fund for Nature (WWF) has launched the first-ever international assessment of forest biodiversity.
Until now, forest biodiversity had by no means been assessed, but forest area was typically used as a proxy indicator.
The new findings have been based mostly on the Forest Specialist Index, developed following the Dwelling Planet Index methodology — an index that tracks wildlife that lives solely in forests.
There has been a 53% decline in the variety of forest wildlife populations since 1970.
Of the 455 monitored populations of forest specialists, greater than half declined at an annual fee of 1.7 per cent, on average between 1970 and 2014.
Whereas the decline was constant in these years among mammals, reptiles and amphibians (notably from the tropical forests), it was much less among birds (especially from temperate forests).
Reasons liable for the decline in wildlife populations:
- Habitat loss and habitat.
- Local weather change.
- Loss of habitat as a consequence of logging, agricultural enlargement, mining, searching, conflicts and unfold of illnesses accounted for nearly 60 per cent of threats.
- Almost 20 per cent of threats have been resulting from overexploitation. Of the 112 forest-dwelling primate populations, 40 have been threatened by overexploitation (searching).
- Local weather change, then again, threatened to 43 per cent of amphibian populations, 37 per cent of reptile populations, 21 per cent of hen populations however only 3 per cent of mammal populations.
- Greater than 60 per cent of threatened forest specialist populations faced multiple menace.
What’s the primary concern now?
Wildlife is an integral part of natural and wholesome forests. They play a serious position in forest regeneration and carbon storage by partaking in pollination and seed dispersal. Thus, loss of fauna can have severe implications for forest health, the climate and humans who rely upon forests for his or her livelihoods.
Want of the hour:
Protecting wildlife and reversing the decline of nature requires pressing international action. The need is to protect harmonious land use in our region, including forest administration and shield probably the most worthwhile surviving ecosystems.
Sources: Right down to earth.
GS Paper three:
Numerous Safety forces and businesses and their mandate.
What to review?
For Prelims and Mains: CBI- Institution, its functioning, points associated to its autonomy and wish for consent in investigations.
Context: Chief Justice of India Ranjan Gogoi has really helpful a complete laws to make the Central Bureau of Investigation practical as an environment friendly and neutral investigative agency.
Problems associated with CBI:
- The company depends on the home ministry for staffing, since lots of its investigators come from the Indian Police Service.
- The agency depends upon the regulation ministry for legal professionals and in addition lacks practical autonomy to some extent.
- The CBI, run by IPS officers on deputation, can also be prone to the federal government’s means to control the senior officers, as a result of they’re dependent on the Central government for future postings.
- One other nice constraint on the CBI is its dependence on State governments for invoking its authority to research instances in a State, even when such investigation targets a Central government employee.
- Since police is a State topic beneath the Structure, and the CBI acts as per the process prescribed by the Code of Felony Process (CrPC), which makes it a police agency, the CBI needs the consent of the State authorities in query before it may well make its presence in that State. This can be a cumbersome procedure and has led to some ridiculous situations.
SC over CBI’s autonomy:
The landmark judgment in Vineet Narain v. Union of India in 1997 laid out a number of steps to secure the autonomy of CBI. Says Mr. Narain: “Limited autonomy was granted. Still the administrative and financial control wrests with the Ministry of Personnel, and thus the government can directly control CBI.”
Why was it referred to as caged carrot by the Supreme Courtroom?
- Politicisation of the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)has been a piece in progress for years.
- Corruption and Politically biased: This was highlighted in Supreme Courtroom criticism for being a caged parrot talking in its master’s voice.
- CBI has been accused of turning into ‘handmaiden’ to the celebration in energy, consequently excessive profile instances usually are not handled significantly.
- Since CBI is run by central police officers on deputation hence probabilities of getting influenced by authorities was visible in the hope of better future postings.
What institutional reforms are wanted?
- Make sure that CBI operates beneath a proper, trendy legal framework that has been written for a up to date investigative company.
- The Second Administrative Reforms Commission (2007) advised that a new regulation must be enacted to control the working of the CBI.
- Parliamentary standing committee (2007) really helpful that a separate act must be promulgated in tune with requirement with time to guarantee credibility and impartiality.
- The 19th and 24th studies of the parliamentary standing committees (2007 and 2008) advisable that the need of the hour is to strengthen the CBI when it comes to legal mandate, infrastructure and assets.
- It’s excessive time that the CBI is vested with the required authorized mandate and is given pan-India jurisdiction. It should have inherent powers to research corruption instances towards officers of All India Providers regardless of the assignments they’re holding or the state they are serving in.
- In addition to appointing the top of the CBI by way of a collegium, as advisable by the Lokpal Act, the government should guarantee financial autonomy for the outfit.
- It’s also potential to think about granting the CBI and different federal investigation businesses the sort of autonomy that the Comptroller and Auditor Basic enjoys as he’s solely accountable to Parliament.
- A new CBI Act ought to be promulgated that ensures the autonomy of CBI whereas at the similar time enhancing the quality of supervision. The new Act should specify felony culpability for presidency interference.
- One of many demands that has been before Supreme Courtroom, and according to worldwide greatest practices, is for the CBI to develop its personal dedicated cadre of officers who will not be bothered about deputation and abrupt transfers.
- A extra efficient parliamentary oversight over the federal felony and intelligence businesses could possibly be a means forward to ensure better accountability, despite considerations relating to political misuse of the oversight.
- The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) is the premier investigating agency of India.
- Operating underneath the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions, the CBI is headed by the Director.
- CBI, India’s first agency to investigate corruption, the Special Police Institution, was set up in 1941, six years before independence from British rule to probe bribery and corruption within the nation during World Struggle II.
- In 1946, it was introduced underneath the House Division and its remit was expanded to investigate corruption in central and state governments beneath the Delhi Special Police Institution Act.
- The particular police forcebecame the Central Bureau of Investigation after the House Ministry, which is answerable for domestic safety, determined to broaden its powers and change its identify in 1963.
Sources: the Hindu.
Mains Question: Look at the criticisms made towards functioning of Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) and in the mild of these criticisms, talk about how its director ought to conduct himself.
Information for prelims:
Commandos For Railway Safety:
Context: CORAS (Commando for Railway Safety) of Indian Railways has been launched to satisfy the challenges to Railway safety.
- Carved out from motivated and prepared young employees of RPF/RPSF.
- With a mean age between 30-35 years, CORAS will all the time be younger and motivated employees.
- Very excessive bodily standards to hitch CORAS.
- Commando Coys shall be deployed in Left Wing Extremism (LWE)/Insurgency/Terrorism affected Railway areas.
What is a worldwide recession?
In an financial system, a recession happens when output declines for 2 successive quarters (that’s, six months). Nevertheless, for a worldwide recession, institutions such as the International Monetary Fund tend to take a look at more than only a weak spot in the financial progress price; as an alternative, they take a look at a widespread impression when it comes to employment or demand for oil, and so on. The long-term international progress average is 3.5%. The recession threshold is 2.5%.
What is a notifiable illness?
A notifiable disease is any disease that’s required by regulation to be reported to authorities authorities.
Need: The collation of data permits the authorities to watch the disease, and offers early warning of attainable outbreaks.
The World Well being Group’s Worldwide Health Laws, 1969 require illness reporting to the WHO as a way to assist with its international surveillance and advisory position.
- The onus of notifying any disease and the implementation lies with the state government.
- Any failure to report a notifiable disease is a felony offence and the state government can take vital actions towards defaulters.
- The Centre has notified a number of illnesses comparable to cholera, diphtheria, encephalitis, leprosy, meningitis, pertussis (whooping cough), plague, tuberculosis, AIDS, hepatitis, measles, yellow fever, malaria dengue, and so forth.
New species of marmoset discovered within the Amazon:
A researcher has discovered a brand new species of marmoset, a kind of primate in the Brazillian Amazon, whilst its habitat is dealing with a flood of ‘developmental’ activities.
- The identify ‘Mico munduruku’ has been given to the marmoset, after the Munduruku Amerindians which might be native to the area.
- Features: The new species is distinct from other marmosets in that it has white tails moderately than black, which the others have. It also has white ft and palms, white forearms and a beige-yellow spot on the elbow.
New burrowing frog species confirmed in Jharkhand:
A brand new species of burrowing frog has been confirmed in Jharkhand’s Chhota Nagpur Plateau. The frog was first found in 2015.
- It has been named as Spahaerotheca Magadhaand can be recognized by the widespread identify of ‘Magadha Burrowing Frog’.
- The frog is endemic to agricultural areas in Nawadih and Joungi village of Jharkhand’s Koderma district.
- The frog is the most recent species of the genus Spahaerotheca, of which, 10 different species are present in South Asia.
‘Golden Butterfly’ selection tea:
Why in Information? The Guwahati Tea Auction Centre (GTAC) has created another worldwide historical past by selling 1 kg of the “Golden Butterfly” tea at a whopping ₹75,000.
- The ‘Golden Butterfly’ is a speciality tea
- It is produced by the Dikom Tea Property near Dibrugarh.
- Golden Butterfly is made from tea buds and not tea leaves.
Summaries of essential Editorials:
Rains aside, blame the dams for Maharashtra, Karnataka floods: Report:
Context: With Maharashtra, Karnataka and Kerala among other states underneath deluge, questions are being raised over their flood administration system. The disaster aggravates by the release of water from overflowing dams within the area on the similar time that relentless rainfall hits it.
Causes for Current floods:
- There isn’t a doubt that heavy and erratic rainfall is among the reasons for floods in a number of states. But that is typically coinciding with dams being full because of poor administration, leading to dam-induced floods.
- Mismanagement on releasing the water from numerous dams worsened the flood state of affairs in Kolhapur, Sangli, and Satara districts of Maharashtra.
- The dams, that have been supposed to help average the flood state of affairs, as an alternative ended up exacerbating it.
- As a consequence of uncertainty in rainfall and worry of dry circumstances in future, dam operators consider storing as quickly as water is on the market however that proves pricey throughout flood fury as then there isn’t any various however to release all of the inflow downstream.
What might have been carried out?
If the quantity of water flowing to the reservoir was recognized beforehand, the water degree within the reservoir might be managed. This could possibly be achieved by means of the simulation models which rely upon the dimensions of the catchment.
Are India’s dams resilient to local weather change as considerations over dam safety have grown in current occasions?
- India’s dams are previous and ageing and there’s an pressing have to assess their security, perform repairs, or dismantle them to stop dam failure-related disasters.
- There are 5,745 reservoirs within the country, of which, 293 have been more than 100 years previous. The age of 25% of dams was between 50 and 100 years and 80% have been over 25 years previous.These dams pose a critical danger as a result of their ageing and structural deterioration.
- The state of affairs will flip alarming as India approaches the years 2025 and 2050: 64 giant dams will turn 125 years of age, 301 will turn 75 years of age, 237 giant dams will turn 65 years and a further 496 giant dams will cross a minimal age of 50. In all, about 1,115 giant dams would have aged no less than 54 years by 2025.
- Dams that span many years, experience differential settlement of foundation, clog of filters, improve of uplift pressures, discount in freeboard, cracks within the dam core, lack of bond between the concrete structure and embankment, reduction in slope stability in earthen and rockfill dams, erosion of earthen slopes, and deformation of dam physique itself.
- Thus, dam elements lose power in a different way during their lifetime and every element inside a large dam ages at a unique fee. Therefore, as a dam ages, the influence of the erosion of earthen elements, by means of the dam body and foundations, and sedimentation occur at a fee totally different (or hostile) than what has been assumed by the policymakers and planners.
Want of the hour:
- Dam management in India wants an entire re-look.
- There ought to be coordination at state and inter-state degree for proper management of the dams and the way operation of reservoirs ought to be completed.
- There ought to be a body to supervise the coordination.
Within the period of local weather change, following the rule curve continues to be more urgent. It’s because we do not know when and how the rainfall will improve or decrease.